Orthodontic problems can be divided into:

  • Dental, when they are associated with the position, size, shape and number of the teeth
  • Skeletal, when they are associated with the size and the relation between the upper and lower jaw
  • Dentoskeletal, as a combination of the above

Orthodontic problems can be attributed to one or , more commonly, a combination of factors:

  • Genetic factors
  • Some common examples are cases with extreme protrusion of the upper teeth (overbite) , prognathism of the lower jaw (underbite), missing permanent teeth, presence of supernumerary (extra) teeth.

  • Local factors
  • Early loss of primary teeth (usually due to caries) without appropriate space maintenance can create an orthodontic problem. Some cases of dental trauma can also contribute to orthodontic problems.

  • Environmental factors
  • Unfavorable and prolonged habits and functions performed by a child can negatively affect the development of the dentition and/or the skeletal growth. Prolonged use of pacifiers, finger/thumb sucking, mouth breathing, and tongue thrust (protrusion of tongue between the teeth during swallowing) are some examples.

Correction of orthodontics problems contributes to:

  • greater protection from dental trauma (in cases of protrusion of upper front teeth)
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  • better oral hygiene (straight teeth and attached gingiva can be easier cleaned)
  • improved function of the dentoskeletal system (occlusion, mastication, speech, temporomandibular joint)
  • improved aesthetics of the teeth and face
  • enhanced self-esteem